Brazil’s climate is varied depending on season and location. The north has a tropical climate with average temperatures of 25 degrees Celsius. Due to its proximity to the equator, it experiences little seasonal variation. This is contrasted by the temperature in the southern regions where summer highs can reach 40 degrees Celsius.
South of the Tropic of Capricorn winters (June-August) can be cold and snowfall can be experienced among the higher plateaus in the southern region. The contrast of its Amazonian and coastal regions ensures that rainfall is extremely variable depending on location. The northeast is the driest region in the country and has suffered from some severe droughts.
Rio de Janeiro has a tropical climate. The rainy season typically lasts from November to March. The average daily temperature during the rainy season normally ranges between 24-30 °C, but can on occasion reach above 40 °C. Between April – September the temperature is usually slightly lower, with a daily temperature of around 21-25 °C, which occasionally reaches above 35 °C.
The average water temperature in the ocean outside Rio is 25-26 °C between December – April. From May to November the temperature is slightly lower with an average of 22-24 °C.
Brazil occasionally experiences extreme climatic conditions. Floods are a frequent occurrence. Deforestation and tropical rainstorms can provoke mudslides that endanger individuals and can disrupt local transportation. Southern Brazil suffers from occasional flooding while the north-eastern regions frequently suffer from drought. Both can trigger local humanitarian crises and an internal displacement of residents.
The risk of hurricanes or similar storms is very limited; the geographical location of the country is not conducive of such storms and they are therefore rare. Relatively strong earthquakes have hit Brazil on occasion in the past, but in general the risk is low. Seismic activity is limited in Brazil as the country is located in the middle of the South American tectonic plate.